Actuators

The dual relationship between sensors and actuators means that there are almost as many actuator as there are sensors. Examples include:

Fluidic

pneumatic, hydraulic

Electrodynamic

motor, solenoid, MAP

Electrostatic

MEMS, EAP

Thermal

Bimetal, SMA, SMP

Chemical

Internal combustion engine, ECA

Exceptions to this rule are a few second order effects such as electrostriction (only actuator). Many actuator principles are, for practical reasons, seldom implemented. In addition to the smart fluids and smart polymers, the MRU is presently involved in research in a number of actuator areas including shape memory materials.